Appendices, tables and figures

If you have a lot of data or, for example, interview forms or more detailed results, you can add them to one or more appendices. Tables and figures in Appendices are numbered as Table A1, Table A2 etc. and NOT in the same number series as other tables and figures.

Tables and figures

How much data should be presented? Report your work results in such a way that the reader sees that you have grounds for your statements. You must present representative data in the form of summary charts and tables; avoid lengthy tables of raw data. These can be included as appendices at the back of your work. Report data either in a table or in a figure, never both.

Tables are used for numerical data or data that can be described in a few words; everything else is shown as figures. Once you have presented data in a table or figure, do not repeat it in the text. Instead present the most important results in words, as described above. The heading of the table or figure, together with the explanatory text, should be so comprehensive that the reader understands what the table or figure is showing, without having to scroll through the rest of the report. This means that it must be clear what you have analysed and what analysis has been done.

The tables and figures are numbered in Arabic numerals in the order in which they are quoted in the text in separate series (Table 1, 2, 3, …, Figure 1, 2, 3, …). Refer to all figures and tables in the main text.


A table has a heading at the top that tells you what the table shows. If you need explanatory text in addition to the heading, there are slightly different traditions. You can either have an explanatory table text at the top, use footnotes or you can have a short description beneath the table. Ask your teacher or supervisor what applies to your assignment.

Example of a table

The table header contains headings for all columns where quantities and units appear. The left column names the categories (Compound 4), whose properties are shown in the following columns (IC50 and LLE). All values ​​on a table row must refer to the category noted in the left most column of that row, and the table should be organised so that it is read left to right. This means that the quantities whose properties you have investigated (what you would have plotted on the x-axis if it were a graph) are listed vertically in the left most column. Horizontal lines are inserted only at the top, below the table head, and at the bottom (see the example). Vertical lines are usually not used in scientific tables, nor are horizontal lines in the table itself.

If a measurement value is missing, it is indicated with “ND” ("not determined") to show that it is not zero. In English, decimals are written with decimal points, so you need to change any data using Swedish decimal commas. You can use footnotes for explanations that apply to individual rows or columns in the table.


Figures can be for example diagrams, maps or sketches of various kinds. For diagrams, both axes should be labeled with quantities (what is measured) and units. All figures need a explanation beneath the figure. You should be able to read this text without having to read the paper first. Here is an example of a figure:

Example of a diagram

Only use curves when the dependent variable varies continuously. Otherwise, use bar charts (for discrete variables) and histograms (bar charts, for continuous variables or for class material). Here is an example of a histogram:

Example of a histogram

Use colors moderately and make sure your images can be understood even if printed in grayscale.

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