The abstract is a summary of the entire essay: introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion. It should be clear why you chose the problem, what you have done, what the result was, and what it means.

Normally in the summary, you should not have references or just state designations or numbers of the studied substances. Instead, write the descriptions or names together with the designations or numbers of the substances. Neither should you use abbreviations other than the very widely known. There are often guidelines for how long an abstract may be (½–1 A4 page is common).

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