Laboratory report template according to PUFF

Title of the Laboratory work

Name ____________________________
Group ____________________________
Date ____________________________
Course ____________________________


Describe the theoretical background of the laboratory work. Write the purpose of the study at the end of the background.

Materials and methods/execution

There are different traditions between different branches of the natural sciences for the allocation of content between Materials and methods and Results. Sometimes the methods are described togehter with the results. Ask your supervisor what applies to your paper.

Here you can describe any chemical reagents and solvents, or biological materials. Use tables. Describe gear and equipment, preferably with schematic figures. The method descriptions could include recipes for all solutions and media, volumes, times, temperatures etc. In Materials and methods, you should also describe how you processed your data and what calculations and statistical analyses you used.

Risk analysis and aspects of a sustainable developmen

Risk assessment is an important part of the systematic work with work environment, that each workplace is required to conduct. Risk assessment is about examining the working environment: finding out how and why ill health and accidents can occur at work. Both employers and employees must control the risks in the work environment together. In connection with the risk assessment, priority is given to the risks that are the most important to deal with. Risk assessments must be documented in writing. The risk assessment workflow can be divided into four steps:

  1. What needs being risk-assessed?
  2. Collect information about the risks
  3. Evaluate the overall risk. Which part is the riskiest?
  4. Suggest possible measures to minimize and manage risks.

Write a brief reflection on the laboratory work from a sustainable development perspective. Are there any social, ecological or economic consequences for sustainable development and how can it be minimized?


In the Results section, describe what you did (if not stated in the Methods part) and what the results were (use past tense). It is not about describing a laboratory guidance. Describe the attempts you have made in a logical way, so that it becomes a story with a beginning and an end. This means that you need to write (briefly) what you did, and sometimes why, before describing the results. Sometimes, it is a good idea to include a figure that shows the experimental methodology. Normally you have calculations, figures (charts) and tables to present. Remember that it should be possible to repeat your investigations, based on your descriptions in Materials and methods as well as in Results.

Discussion and conclusion

Discuss what the results mean and what conclusions can be drawn. If, for some reason, the results did not turn out as you imagined, you can provide sources of error. Do not list universal or “insignificant” sources of error, but concentrate on things that you really think may have affected your results.


List any literature, articles or other sources that form the basis of the theory, materials and methods, or are relevant to the interpretation of the results (in the Discussion section). Do not forget to cite references in the text above.

Back to the Guide to written and oral communication